Social Justice and the so called socialists

A study on the antireservation
policy of the  Indian Ruling Class

- Dr. M.S. Jayaprakash


[The writer is a Historian, Social and Human Right Activist, Retired Professor and Head of the Department of History,  Kerala University]

Wherever there were oppressed classes and oppressors, there had occurred bloody revolutions aiming at Social Justice.  France, Russia, China, South Africa etc. are all glaring examples in the annals of history. However, in India where oppression has been so deep and wide affecting at least 80% of the people, there hasn’t been a single bloody revolution in the entire history of this subcontinent !  Here it is to be noted that  freedom movement was not a national revolution as such.  Unlike in other parts of the world, in India the oppressed classes are traditionally, considered by the so called upper – castes as low – castes.  They have been, deliberately and based on a well planned – conspiracy,  kept in the oppressed condition.  Freedom movement was only a strategic move under the leadership of ‘Manu Vaadis’ to restore power to the traditional hands packed in a different mould namely democratic government, from the alien powers.  The slavery continued even after securing freedom from foreign powers. In fact the traditionally oppressed majority found themselves having jumped from the frying  pan to the fire. This majority was actually longing for liberation from the clutches of internal oppressors – the upper –caste brahminical microscopic minority, and not from the alien powers.  In many respects the foreign rulers were blessings in disguise as far as the oppressed majority was concerned. This speaks volumes about the harshness of the oppression the majority out – castes were being subjected to by the privileged minority upper – castes. The horror generated by the Chathurvarna Caste system was so intolerably impacting on the majority out castes that they actually preferred the alien rulers to the native Hindu Raajas.

Though a bloody revolution was practically impossible in the India that time, a bloodless – intellectually and ideologically – driven revolution was taking place in India under the influence of Christianity and Islam, particularly Islam.  A traditional out caste, an untouchable, once he embraced Islam suddenly found himself liberated from the yoke to which he was inextricably tied by the inhuman caste – system. This awareness that they experienced themselves by just changing their faith, inspired and impelled tens of thousands of out – castes ‘Hindus’ to embrace Islam and Christianity.   The relatively impartial and intellectually honest  approach and attitude of the British rulers also contributed to this bloodless revolution.  It was this liberal – impartial attitude that inspired the great saint – social reformer of India Shri – Narayanaguru to tell to Gandhiji in an eye-ball to eye ball meeting at Shivagiri : “ Britishers are our Gurus (preceptors). So we don’t want to hear any thing bad about them”.  Shri Narayanaguru was the impelling force behind this great social revolution. It was this revolution that converted the ‘lunatic Asylum’ – a descriptive phrase – used by no less a person  than Swamy  Vivekananda, to describe the caste – ridden Kerala of those days.

However, this great social movement could not be converted into a great political movement of the oppressed majority, owing to the reactionary – pseudo elements who colluded with the upper – caste brahminical forces for petty personal benefits!  The brahminical forces could undermine the movement by generating false patriotism and fraudulent revolutionary ideals.  Those intellectually dishonest reactionaries successfully seduced the pseudo – revolutionaries into their fold while at the same time keeping them still deprived of the special privileges that were reserved only for the brahminical class.  Once again, as in the past, the majority consisting of Dalits – backward classes now stand before the oppressors with their begging – bowls !   They are the victims of the brahminical trickery as ever. In  order to achieve true Social  Justice,  this backward – dalit forces must get united  politically as one  without  getting carried away by the brahminical charm.

At the national level, these reactionary forces that were all along at the helm of affairs in India, systematically  and intelligently suppressed all moves for Social Justice. All such moves were nipped in the bud adeptly and adequately. When the issue of separate constituency was mooted to be incorporated in the Minto Morley Reform of 1909 proposal, these reactionary forces opposed it, tooth and nail. The question raised by Jinnah as to how to be at harmony with these people who washed their hands  after shaking hands with him (with muslims) is still relevant though in a different context.

The main agenda of Simon Commission who came to India in 1928 was Social Justice since the majority population of India were untouchables  and they needed special protection – was the recommendation of the Commission which was accepted by the British Government.  It was in anticipation of this agenda that the brahminical stalwarts inspired the out castes in the name of patriotism and together opposed the Simon Commission with the cry of ‘go back’.  It is the present generation of those reactionary forces,  today oppose reservation for the oppressed classes who remain backward for no mistake of theirs. When the anti reservation protest was staged at Delhi by the upper caste youths, the BC and Dalit students, raised the slogan – “Aryans,  Goback”.

In the Round Table Conference, in 1930 the British rulers even enacted a special law for the empowerment of Dalit Community in consideration of their pathetic conditions. The brahminical forces undermined this somehow and called Ambedkar a British stooge  !  They undermined virtually every move that had the potential to uplift the Dalits and other – backwards while at the same time extracting maximum favours from the British administration at the cost of the people and this country. They never ever bothered, what happened to the country. They betrayed the country without the slightest compunction. Now they play the same role, in the garb of patriotism !.

Gandhiji himself declared a fast – unto – death against Ambedkar, playing second fiddle to the brahminical forces ! Gandhiji has never ever protested this way, even against the Britishers during freedom struggle. Ultimately, through the Poona  Pact they defeated the Ambedkar Mission. This has ever been the attitude of the upper caste forces in India towards the Dalits.

In 1936, it was when share of power was demanded that Muhammed Ali Jinnah was stamped a communalist and a separatist, while infact Jinnah was although against a division. Jinnah for the first time raised this issue when he was driven to the wall by the upper caste Hindu forces under the leadership of Gandhiji.  Jinnah’s reasonable proposals for share of power were continually declined by Gandhi and Co. This stubborn attitude of the upper caste mind – set was entirely responsible for the division !  Even if a division was inevitable, still the backwards must not come to power. This was the attitude of the brahmincial upper castes.

Right to reservation was incorporated into the Constitution of Independent India at the behest of Ambedkar. However the several governments that came to power through democratic process undermined the full implementation of reservation for Dalit – and backward communities under one pretext or another.  Even when they were forced to implement it under practical political compulsions, the implementation process was stalled or slowed down by administrative and other interventions of the upper caste strategies.  The Kaakakalekkar Commission Report on reservation in 1953 was practically undermined by the same strategy. Then there was a long silence.  The extremely dejected back-wards remained silent helplessly for 26 years! Compelled by political realities another commission was appointed in 1979  viz. The Mandal Commission and the commission submitted its report to the Indira Gandhi Government in 1980.  Indira Gandhi did not take any action to implement the report and kept it in the shelf for ten years. In the ninetees when the V.P. Singh’s Government initiated positive measures for its implementation there was a huge violent back lash from the brahminical – reactionary forces .  Even attempts for self immolations were staged by the upper caste Natak Companies in order to force the Government. to stall the implementation process !  Once again they were the people who were benefitted. They, through the backlash, could obtain the creamy layer introduced into the reservation for the first time. Finally, when the commission report was implemented, it was implemented in a crippled condition, depriving the backwards of its full benefits.

Mandal Commission Report consists of three equally important parts like a tree may be viewed as an entity of three segments namely the roots, the stems and leaves flowers – fruits. Here the flowers – fruits may be considered as 27% reservation in the Government Services.  In the Indian conditions education, particularly higher education, is inaccessible for the economically backwards. This obviates the necessity for uplifting the backward communities economically. So a programme was chalked out by Mandal with a view to solve the economic backwardness of the backward communities – which included the establishment of separate banking institutions exclusively for the backward communities. This recommendation was not implemented, thus avoided the roots and stems of the Mandal Recommen dations. Adequate representation must be 52% in accordance with the population of the backward communities but it was reduced into 27%.

Mandal recommended reservations in all the departments and services of the government related to technology, employment etc.  But practically nullifying many important and vital suggestions in the report, implementation was restricted to only civil service and posts. Out of about 50 lakhs posts, 15 lakhs are in the defence. Contrary to the recommendations, this has been declared out of reservation.

Thus 27% was reduced into 18%. Government  also declared several other areas out of bounds of reservation like technological, research and development, higher education, medical, engineering, aeronautical etc., as a result of which practically the percentage declined to 12 from 18.  It was on this 12% that the ‘creamy – layer’ gimmick was imposed, because of which the practical net implementation was reduced to a mere 5%. The backward communities have not fully realized the impact of this betrayal.  It is in addition to this that the financial strain imposed by the corrupt Village – Taluk  officials in the name of creamy – layer.

Science and technology institutions are the monopoly of the upper caste segment. In the higher education professional areas, 50 percent of the positions are held by the Brahmins who constitute hardly 3 percent of the population!  In general, the forward class segment who constitute only 15 per cent of the total population practically hold 78  per cent of the positions !, where as a mere 22 per cent is the practical share of the backward segment who constitute 85 percent of the Indian population.  

Now the million dollar question is as to what is the contribution of the  so called ‘spokesmen of merits’ to the field of Indian – Science and technology ? They have not so far been able to devise a single technological know-how that is suitable to the native soil of India for its development.  We need our own technology which alone can solve our problems that are unique to India and Indian conditions.  In Kerala, there is a Coconut Research and Development Institution of the Government of Kerala whose main entrusted task was to develop suitable technical know – how to tackle the several diseases afflicting the coconut trees in Kerala that were threatening the major agricultural crop in the state.  Even after about 40 years of research at the expense of crores of rupees, the ‘brainy – fellows’ have not been able to develop an effective technology to tackle this problem ! This so called scientific community always looked at the foreign – particularly western technology for solutions since they are destined to work on imported brains. However, in Kerala,  of late, they have located a solution that is suitable for the people of Kerala as well as they themselves namely to destroy the trees afflicted with the diseases at the cost of Rs. 10 per tree.  Yes,  that is being implemented.

One must analyse and evaluate the concept of Social Justice – failing to take root in our society. We are entrusting the vital task of implementing Social Justice with the same people who have been torpedoing every move towards – Social Justice in the past and in the present. The entire social history of India is impregnated with such instances and episodes. These reactionary forces have been constantly and continuously at work in order to impede any forward movement from the side of the backward classes. This conspiracy is so deep rooted and widespread that it requires a systemic and systematic approach to alter it.  We have to create an awareness that is integral in the minds and hearts of the dalit – backward classes so as to electrify them and instigate them to a rethinking.  We can and we should no more trust our proven traditional – enemies, we can and we should no more entrust our interests with our time tested incorrigible foes – the brahminical upper castes. We should make use of our franchise to elect true representatives who are committed under solemn vow to protect the interests of the under privileged at any rate.  We must have our representatives in every constitutional bodies and other institutions  in proportion to our numerical strength. Only then the  concept of Social Justice can be and will be realized.

The myth of the Aryan invasion of India – II

 - Prof.S.M.Khodke

Former Vice President, Akhil Bharatiya Satyashodhak Samaj, Akota District, Maharashtra

Swami B.V.Giri:

In his essay, ‘The Aryan Invasion’, argues that there is no hard evidence to prove the Aryan Invasion theory and that nowhere in the Vedas, Puranas or Itihasas there is  any mention of a migration or invasion of any kind. He argues further that the hypothesis of the Aryan invasion of the Indian sub-continent was based upon references in the Vedas pointing to a conflict between the light-skinned Aryans and the dark-skinned Dasyus. In the end Mr. Giri conveniently and cunningly dismisses the Vedas as ‘nothing more than a series of poetic tales about the skirmishes between two barbaric tribes.’

So far we have dealt with the arguments of the main critics of the Aryan Invasion theory viz. Mr.M.S.Elphinstone, Prof. G.F.Dales and Swami B.V.Giril. The objectives or the motivations of all the three scholars, however, were different. While the motives of Mr.M.S.Elphinstone and Prof. G.F.Dales were purely academic, the motive of  Swami B.V.Giri, a Brahmin scholar, was not so. Mr.Giri had an ulterior motive; he wanted to establish the racial superiority of the Brahmins and also to prove that the Arya-Brahmins were not outsiders, but the original inhabitants of India. That is why he ruled out any possibility of the immigration of the Indo-Aryans into India.

Swami B.V.Giri pretends to decry Max Mueller’s Aryan race and Aryan invasion theories and also purposely points out the dangers of such theories when he says, “The political and nationalist groups in Germany and France exploited this racial phenomenon to propogate the supremacy of an assumed Aryan race of white people. Later, Adolf Hitler used this ideology to the extreme for his political hegemony and his barbaric crusade to terrorize the Jews, the Slavs and other racial minorities, culminating in the holocaust of  millions of innocent people1.”

Swami B.V.Giri, obviously a partisan of the Brahmins, as his very title ‘Swami’ indicates, doesn’t realize the flaw in his argument. He cannot have the best of both the worlds. If the Brahmins are proved to be Aryans coming from Persia, as he suggests, they are ‘outsiders’ in this country. If they are not outsiders, they are not Aryans and cannot, therefore, claim racial superiority over other races in this country. The two claims of Swami Giri are thus mutually exclusive and totally incompatible with each other.

The Brahmin Scholars’ reaction to the Aryan Invasion theory:

As said by us earlier, when Mr. Max Mueller first put forth his Aryan race theory, the Brahmins not only readily accepted it but at once appropriated it because it gave them a new racial identity. Puffed up by this new but false racial identity, B.G.Tilak, a leader of the Brahmins, enthusiastically traced the origin of the Vedas and of his Brahmin community not to Central Asia but further north in the Arctic region and then further still to the North pole! He could as well have traced them to heaven and still it would have been in consonance with the belief of the Brahmins that they are the Bhudevas i.e., the gods on the earth!2

Obviously Mr. B.G.Tilak here betrayed his poor knowledge of geography. His disciple, Mr.Golwalkar Guruji, the then Chief of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (R.S.S.), when asked about Tilak’s statement quoted above, replied that, when Tilak wrote, the North pole was somewhere in the Bihar State of India, but since then it changed its position and has not reached its present position! Like Master like disciple! And still the conceited Brahmins brag of being world teachers. (God save the world from such braggarts and such teachers!)

Mr.B..V.Giri still calls B.G.Tilak ‘ a scholar’ and says – “Based on literary analysis, many scholars including B.G.Tilak, Dayanand Saraswati and Aurobindo Ghosh dismissed any idea of an Aryan invasion. They asked, for example, “If the Aryans were foreign invaders, why is it that they don’t name places outside of India as their religious sites? and why do the Vedas glorify only places within India?  3

Here Mr.B.V.Giri is lying and misleading and confusing his readers. The truth is that B.G.Tilak had earlier accepted the Aryan Invasion theory and had even affirmed that the Indo-Aryans who invaded India had their original home in the Arctic region! But, when Mahatma Jotirao Phule, the great revolutionary who represented the 19th century rennaisance in India, told the Brahmins bluntly that, by their own admission, they were ‘outsiders’ and not the original inhabitants of India. B.G.Tilak at once changed his stance and, taking a U-turn on this issue, as the Brahmins always do, made vain attempts to prove that the Brahmins were the original inhabitants of India! Dayanand Saraswati and Aurobindo Ghosh also sided with Tilak. And Mr.Giri always tried to support Mr.Tilak and company in their attempt to change their positions on this issue. This is how the Brahmins always change their colours like the chameleon. They speak with hundred tongues and often take diametrically opposite stands on every issue.

My grounds for opposing the Aryan Invasion theory:

Besides the reasons adduced by Mr. M.S.Elphinstone, Prof. G.F.Dales and Swami B.V.Giri against the Aryan Invasion theory, I have my own reasons for opposing this theory. My contention is that the Aryans were no invaders. They didn’t invade India; they just peacefully immigrated into this country as nomadic tribes.

In the Rigvedic period the Brahmins performed a vain and meaningless ritual called ‘Yajna’ which, according to them, was the symbol of their Vedic-Brahminc religion. In this ritual they built a pit and burned wood and several aromatic materials in the fire. Before starting the Yagna the priests invoked their gods and deities – Agni (Fire), Vayu (Wind), Indra (the chief of the gods), Usha (Dawn), Varun (Rain) – the various powers of nature which they worshipped as deities. In their invocations,  the Brahmin priests chanted hymns in praise of their deities. They sacrificed calves, bulls and other animals to their deities and feasted on their flesh at the end of the Yajnas. They also offered prayers to their various deities. They prayed to Indra, the chief of the gods, to protect their Yajna from their enemies – the Asuras, the Rakshasas and the Dasyus, the aboringals of India.  They also prayed to their deities to protect them, their wives and childrten and their livestock. And they prayed to the deities to give them cows, horses, wealth and a long life.

We can conclude from the nature of the ritual of Yajna described above that the Aryans of the Vedic period were neither valiant warriors not militant aggressive people; they were rather meek, weak and cowardly people who were unable to protect themselves,their families and their Yajna, and who lived under a constant fear of being attacked by their enemies, the aboriginal clans of India.

My point is that the brave or the strong don’t pray for protection; they know how to defend and protect themselves. Besides this, the strong don’t beg for anything; they just fight and grab things from their enemy by force. Praying for protection, for cows, wealth and children is nothing but begging. Invaders are no beggars and beggars cannot be called invaders. Invaders are strong, brave, valiant, aggressive people, armed with superior weapons, ever ready to attack and to fight.

But the Aryans of the Vedic period didn’t know any weapons other than the bow and the arrow. They didn’t know iron. So they didn’t know sword, shield or dagger and, therefore, even today there are no words in their Sanskrit for ‘sword’, ‘shield’, or ‘dagger’. Sanskrit, however, abounds in words for imaginary weapons, such as Sudarshan Chakra, Agniban, Parjanyastra, Brahmastra and certain organic weapons like emitting fire or wind from the mouth.

The Vedas also say that ‘a Brahmin shall never wield a weapon.’ This means the Brahmins admit they are not brave or militant people and cannot, therefore, wield a weapon or fight. But the Brahmins never admit their weakness, and often make a virtue of necessity. Instead of admitting they cannot wield weapons, they say they don’t believe in violence! If the Aryans had really invaded India, they would not have written in the Vedas that ‘a Brahmin shall never wield a weapon.’ This also proves that the Aryans never invaded India.

The evidence elaborated so far clearly prove that the Indo-Aryans were not invaders; they were just immigrants who entered this country as nomadic tribes  in search of new pastures for their cattle and a favourable land for their habitation. They story of Aryan invasion of India is, therefore, utterly baseless and imaginary; it is a myth.

The Brahmins are, however, notorious for their cunningness. What they cannot achieve by force, they secure by fraudulent means and cunning. For example, they cunningly fabricated the mythical stories of the genocide of the Kshatriyas by Parashuram or the false story of their Waman defeating King Bali of India.

Dr. Malati Shendge  rightly says, “when the Aryans came and tried to settle, the move was resisted by the local population. But the end was finally achieved through cunning and strategy”. The  reason why the Brahmins are so cunning is aptly expressed by the great American poet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, in the following lines:

“He who has no hands, must peforce
to use his tongue, Foxes  are so cunning,
because they are not strong”.


1.     Giri, Swami B.V., His essay – ‘The Aryan Invasion’.
2.     Tilak, Bal Gangadhar, ‘The Arctic Home of the Vedas’.
3.     Giri, Swami B.V., His essay ‘The Aryan Invasion’.

Emperor Ashoka by Charles Allen

- Review by Partha Chatterjee

Erudite, entertaining

Charles Allen's Ashoka is an erudite, entertaining book on Emperor Ashoka or the ‘The King without sorrow’ who ruled over a united India some 2250 years ago. He turned Buddhism into a ‘world religion’ and introduced moral concepts whose impact on Asia can be felt to this day. But Ashoka's moral battle was won after a terrible crisis of conscience following the battle of Kalinga, the bloodiest one of the time, in which tens of thousands were killed.

Strange but true, Ashoka lay forgotten as a historical figure, quite literally buried under the sands of time, until the British introduced the discipline of archaeology and sent scholar-administrators to India to study Sanskrit and Pali and to learn from Hindu and Jain scholars the art of interpreting old manuscripts and, to perhaps, evolve a logical method of decoding the ancient past. Among the very first British scholars was Sir William Jones who came to Calcutta in September 1783. Jones died 1n 1794 but not before he had set up the Asiatic Society, modelled on the Royal Society in England.

“A new chapter in India's history had begun. The light of reason would now be brought to bear on Jones's sixth objects of enquiry, leading to a new understanding of Mother India as ‘the nurse of sciences, the inventress of delightful and useful arts, the scene of glorious actions, fertile in the production of human genius.” One of the objectives of Jones's quest was to recover India's forgotten pre-Muslim history.

Unique achievement

One of the lasting achievements of the British archaeologists and their Indian colleagues whom they trained, was to bring to light the Ashokan world and its premier place in the history of human civilisation. Ashoka was the first ruler, possibly in the world, to espouse the cause of non-violence as a way of life and was a beacon to M.K. Gandhi who did the same in early 20 century India ruled by the British. Allen's book is strewn with the names of people who have persevered through the most trying hardships to unravel the hoary past and offer new perspectives in the interpretation of History. There is an oil painting , courtesy APAC, British Library, of Colin Mackenzie flanked by Jain and Brahmin pandits, after his appointment as Surveyor General. There are many reproductions of ancient sites and of reliefs on stone. Indian artists like Shaikh Abdullah, Murugesa Moodaliar, among others, are duly acknowledged for their contribution as are scholars Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, Dr. Bhau Daji and Bhagwan Lal Indraji, archaeologists Dr. Daya Ram Sahni and R.D. Banerjee. There are, of course, many others also duly acknowledged for their contribution in their respective disciplines. The stars from the British side are many but the two names that stand out are General Sir Alexander Cunningham in the first half of the 19th  century and John Marshall in the first two decades of the 20th century.

Underlying thesis

Allen's subtle thesis suggests that it is over the debris of the previous civilisation that another built. The Jain and Buddhist civilisations were violently overwhelmed by that of the Hindus, whose claims to peace, love and harmony in our times is mythical. He wryly observes in his Preface: “The politicians who in 1991 egged on the mob that destroyed Babur's mosque at Ayodhya on the grounds that it was built over the Hindu warrior-god Rama's fort may be surprised to know that some of the most famous Hindu temples in India almost certainly began as Buddhist structures, often incorporating Buddhist icons, either in the form of deities or as lingams. Four likely examples — selected simply because they come from the four corners of the subcontinent — are the Badrinath shrine in the far north Garhwal Himalayas, the Jagannath temple at Puri on the east coast, the Ayyappa shrine at Sabarimala in Kerala and the Vithalla shrine at Pandharpur in Western Maharashtra.”

Ashoka is an example of dedicated scholarship worn lightly. It is refreshing in its insights and is written with the same ease and elegance as his earlier books on India and the Indian experience. Profusely illustrated, this book easily bridges the gap between dry scholarship and its transformation into a pleasurable read. The reproductions, particularly of photographs, could have been sharper.
(Courtesy: ‘The Hindu’  – Sunday Magazine     – 1st April, 2012)

Our duty today – Periyar E.V. Ramasamy

(An Explanatory Note: Periyar says Brahmin domination and exploitation ensues from two factors : One they rule the minds of the people by propagating ideas of god, religion and scriptures that assign them a privileged position in society. Secondy, they have undue hold on the executive, the judiciary and the administration by denying others their due share in those branches. Periyar fought on both those fronts. K.Kamaraj, who was the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu between 1954 and 1963 remained non-committal regarding the first issue. But regarding the second one, he followed a firm course that helped to uplift the historically disadvantaged and the servile classes. He gave them education and employment. So Periyar appealed to his followers to support Kamaraj's government wholeheartedly.)

The harm done by Brahmins in our country is something found no where else in the world. The harm arises out of one's birth in a (lower) caste. The pain and suffering the Tamil society undergoes is like that of a consumptive being affected, in addition, by leprosy and cancer.

The suffering we undergo is due to our allowing the British rulers to quit the country without making proper arrangements (safeguards). In this ‘so-called’ independent land, we do not have the (beneficial) life that we had when we were not free. Let me give a suitable example to explain the difference between the free life under the British rule and the nature of life under the Brahmin rule. The owner of a company has two groups of animals. One set of animals are harmless, they do not injure or kill others. The other group of animals are ferocious, and carnivorous. The proprietor of the circus company keeps them apart locking them in separate cases. But members of the Association of Compassion agitate against the animals being locked up. They compel the owner to hand over the keys and go away. The agitators unlock the cages and allow the different kinds of animals to roam freely. As a result, the elephants, horses, goats, cows etc. have become prey to lions, tigers, leopards, wolves, fox etc. The welfare that we experienced as subjugated citizens of the alien rulers could not be experienced now as free citizens under the Brahmin rule. We still remain servile subjects.

The Tamils cannot understand the foolishness, indignity, and the shamefulness of their servile condition They are so 'seasoned' as not to be ashamed and be pained (of their fallen status). Being so conditioned, they think living by grabbing the crumbs thrown away makes life more comfortable than living by their own labour as dignified citizens.

(By their own claim) the Brahmins belong to a different (Aryan) race. In Tamil Nadu they form three percent of the population. Tamils (Dravi-dians)  are the natives of this land. They constitute 97 per cent. It is only natural and just that Tamils should have a hold over others. But those who constitute 97 percent of the population are treated by the other three per cent as servile and undignified people by birth, that too for several centuries together! What is the reason? They are caught in the coils of the very small minority's cunning device (of varna-Jaathi, caste system), and consider many among their own people as of low birth and treat them as such.

Though a very small minority, the alien Brahmins (Paarpanar) have disciplined racial affinity and are serious about retaining their superior status and comfortable living. By daringly doing even improper deeds and by adopting the four devices they have in their favour god, religion, scripture and the government – the executive, judiciary and administration. So they are able to tackle any kind of opposition and safeguard their superior position and comfortable living. (Translator's note: The four devices of overcoming the adversaries are:

(1) Saama, friendly attempt,

(2) Beda, creating division,

(3) Dhaana, material inducement,

(4) Dhanda punishment.)

 Though a few among this 97 percent of the population are aware of this low status (of the Tamils), they are slaves in the fields mentioned above, and have no unity among them. So the Brahmin domination continues. Those few who come forward to change this condition have to work, till their last breath, (1) for the eradication of the ideas about god, religion and scripture (that sanctify Brahmin superiority and division of society on the basis of caste), and  (2) for gaining power in government (executive, judiciary and administration).

Without accomplishing these two tasks, our attempts to change our indignity and low condition will only strengthen and benefit our foes who are enjoying superior status and comfortable life. Regarding our task of abolishing the prevailing ideas on god, religion and scripture, and getting rid of the government (rule) that protects them, our movement (Dravidar Kazhagam) is now mainly engaged in abolishing the ideas and beliefs. Regarding government, Tamil Nadu is now under Kamaraj's rule. We not only think it unnecessary to get rid of his rule, but also consider it necessary to safeguard the same from being toppled by Brahmins. Not only the members of our movement but also all the Tamils should understand this situation.

When I express this opinion, Tamil people may consider it strange, and may also be dissatisfied. The ideas on god, religion and scripture are formed by the Brahmins to serve their interests. The government is also under their authority (influence). That being so, the people may think, why should we spare the government. They may wonder why I take such a stand?

 I want to explain my position by an example. Though I ask you to get rid of what are usually hailed as our great literary works, I appeal to you to follow Thiru Kural (an ancient non-sectarian Tamil work on ethics by Thiru Valluvar). Why?

We do not agree in toto with everything said in Thiru Kural. Yet it contains several very good ideas that will benefit us. It is for this reason our foes do not consider it one among their literary works, may they oppose, ignore and hate Thiru Kural.

Normally, you can see Brahmins preaching and propagating what are said in Bhagavatha, Ramayana, Maha Bharata, Gita etc. Have you ever seen them doing the same with Thiru Kural? They neither quote it nor use it to explain a point. This practice clearly shows which literary work is beneficial to us, and which is not.

Again, before we began to speak in praise of Thiru Kural, Brahmins did not hate it. But they had interpreted the Kural verses (couplets) in such a way as to make its readers servile to them. After we had given the correct or real meaning, they had brushed Kural aside. Not only that, they and Sankaracharis’ (their religious leaders) have begun to propagate with greater vigour the Brahmin literary works, viz. Maha Bharata, Ramayana, Bhagavatha and Gita. From this, as intelligent people, we have to understand the following aspects: Things beneficial to us are opposed to the interests of Brahmins, our foes. Things that serve the interests of Brahmins are those we have to abolish. This is as true as the brightness of the noonday sun and the pitch darkness of a moonless night! One who does not realise this is as ignorant as he is blind.

All the Brahmins consider that the present government in Tamil Nadu (under the Chief Ministership of Kamaraj) is harmful to them and that it should be removed. They also take enormous efforts to remove the Congress Party (that has formed the Government in Tamil Nadu) and the leader of the party, Jawaharlal Nehru. In their effort to bring down the present rule of Kamaraj the whole Brahmin community is united – men and women – young and old, their religious heads, political leaders, administrators, judges and others. The traitors to our race who have to exist at the mercy of the Brahmins have also joined them. They have all gathered together, are rising like a storm and striving hard to overthrow the rule of Kamaraj.

To eradicate racial indignity and to remove the obstacles to our progress, we should annihilate the ideas on god, religion and scriptures favourable to Brahmins. We should also work hard to strengthen the present Tamil Nadu Government under Kamaraj, which the Brahmins are bent on destroying.

(Excerpts from ‘Viduthalai’ editorial dated
12th December 1960. Translation by G.V.K. Aasaan.)


News about Ghosts spread like wild fire

A major challenge to the efforts of
eradication of superstition!

Since the period of primitive life, human beings have been leading their lives with a sense of insecurity, as the culmination of their reluctance to think over the mysteries,  which remained unanswered around them. As rational thinking advanced , science got developed  and reasons were found out over such mysteries, they felt some sort of security. However the spirit of enquiry continues to remain stunted whatever be the educational background and the position, people assume. They simply become the subject of mental slavery without the application of mind. They are more concerned in justifying their opinion by merely shielding themselves in the name of ‘faith’. Prevalence of this sort of mentality in human beings is the breeding ground for the spread of superstition.

The observance according to one’s faith personally, even though it is meaningless, affects only that individual. The faith in superstition has got  societal bearing which is detrimental to the cause of the mankind and its peaceful living. In this context, the prevalence and practice of superstition must be eradicated in its entirety. Superstition of any degree that prevails in the society continues to remain as the stumbling block for human progress. It stretches back the people from the positive path – treading. Much of human time gets wasted, which could otherwise be deployed constructively.

Recently, ‘vampire is wandering in the villages’ – is the popular attention catching news in many vernacular print media in the northern parts of Tamil Nadu, India. The print media have not discharged their due social responsibility. The news spread like wild fire in many villages. The spread was restricted only to the  ‘villages’. If this stress on ‘villages’ is understood properly, then solution will be automatic.

The social relationship that exists in the society is in one way advantageous to the spread of superstition. Many people do not believe in ‘vampire’. But they have to remain as the one in the lot in the observance of protective measures from the so called deleterious effects of vampire. To the extent they are conscious about the humbug of ‘vampire’, they could not resist it and oppose the superstition from its further spread. The villagers belief falsely that by inscribing ‘trishul’ on the doors of household and writing as ‘Go back today! Come on tomorrow!’ will wean away the entry of vampire. What a fantastic deed twisted against to fortify their households from the so called attack of vampire!

The Rationalists’ Forum of Periyar Movement, an unequivocal social reform movement took earnest steps as  Fact Finding Mission, and visited the news inflicted villages. Invariably the functionaries of the Forum interacted with the villagers.

The appreciable and positive point observed out of the interaction is that no one was definitive about the prevalence of vampire. Individually, they are strong against such superstition. However they have to get along with the stream of fellow villagers. The inscriptions in the house  both ‘figurative’ and in ‘script’ are uniform with the  same style of font and colour. This itself is the  proof that the inscription was not made individually by  the inmates of the respective households but  by a team of trouble mongers and few people who do possess certain vested interests. The people in the house do not have the guts to oppose while inscribing or to  erase it afterwards. The lack of guts on the part of the villagers is not due to the ‘fear on vampire’. The reality is that they do not wish to antagonize the fellow villagers, despite its deception.

In another village visit, it came to light, that the gullible villagers have been stuck with the news of vampire in a different way. The milch animals and other livestock suffered immediate and sudden death due to some diseases, which could not be diagnosed till now by the veterinary experts. When the specimen of  the dead livestock were sent for laboratory investigation and further  study, the news was spread as if the death of the livestock was caused by the attack of the vampire. The remoteness of the geographical location of the village from the main stream,  was advantageous to the rumour mongers. The ignorant villagers who were at the heavy loss resulted due to the death of their livestock had to believe on the line of the spread of false news.

The social coherence and the ignorance that prevails in the villages is the major contributing factor for the perception and practice of superstitions like vampire, sorcery, black magic etc. Such sort of perception is not prevalent in urban areas where, the fore said elements are missing comparatively. Urbanization is welcome though not in the eradication of superstition fully but at least in ignoring the spread of news of superstition as wild fire.

Inculcation of rationality and enlightening the masses against the belief of  superstition is the ultimate agenda to be accomplished by any lover of mankind. Periyar Movement charted out a whirlwind propaganda tour to visit the villages on war footing to  wipe out the wild fire spread of vampire wandering in the illusion inflicted  villagers . This  rationalist propaganda was aimed at instilling the confidence in the minds of the villagers, instead of  being carried away by the false propaganda, made by the vested interests.

The  cunning inner plan of the gainers who  prescribe compensatory rituals to the innocent and ignorant masses were exposed. Questioning approach, inquiring mind which are unusual among the ignorant villagers got inculcated in their minds. For the time being some sort of relief from the superstitious mental make up have been carved out. Permanent solution lies in the sustained development of scientific temper, spirit of enquiry which are directed as the fundamental duty of the  citizen, enunciated in the Indian Constitution.

 Article 51 A (h) says,

‘It shall be the duty of every citizen of India, to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform’

Let us make the citizens duty bound fundamentally, in order to protect themselves,  enabling their escape from the mental enslavement due to superstition!